The first crusade was a campaign launched by Pope Urban II to conquer jerusalem, “the holy city to cleanse it of sordid inferior muslims and their religion, and permeate christianity. The ambition of the war was not just for religious purposes, but for more political dominance. For example, Jerusalem was not just a holy city, but a business enterprise. If you take a globe, and trace major trading routes in the middle east, they pass through Jerusalem, making it one of the biggest trading centers in the known world. Practically all goods traded in the middle east circulated in Jerusalem, which is still true today. With control of this city, leaders of the church would have had a huge surplus of wealth, and further control of european government. In addition of wealth, Pope Urban II launched the wars as a counter initiative to the muslim rising influence. For centuries the european church has been on the defensive on Islam, and the Pope found a solution by using an intuitive way to manipulate christians to fight in the war. With the success of the first crusade, not only did the Pope protect his power against muslims, but also strike at the heart of their supremacy by conquering Jerusalem. With the value of Jerusalem and an opportunity for the church to defend their power, it is limpid that religion was only a part of a reason as politics had prominence too.
The Spanish Inquisition was a law that persecuted muslims and jews living in spain and compelled them to convert to catholicism, leave the country, or be publicly executed. Although showing religious protest towards other rising religions was one of the reasons of its origin, having a better political position was the primary goal. Since christians just regained control of Spain, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella needed a way to unify Spain. A resolution they discovered was to make Christianity the principal and only religion of Spain, which led to the Spanish Inquisition that started in 1478. As a result, this fostered Spain’s variegated population to come to a concord, by ridding of people who were considered heretics, like the jews and muslims.Furthermore, jews and muslims still held many affluent high ranking jobs, and were believed to be dangerous to the church and state for their secret activities. It was also convenient for Spain to completely dominate the social structure by expelling the jews and muslims.
The thirty years war was the result of both religious and political unrest. It had religious purposes from the conflicts between protestantism and cnd catholicism, where faithful countries often fought each other for rights of religious freedom. However, the main cause of the war was the political tension of ascendency between the house of habsburg and rebelling countries. The house of habsburg was a catholic line of family members that controlled most of europe, including Spain, England, Germany, Austria, and Italy. This put France and many protestant countries such as Germany and Sicily that were encircled by these territories in constant alarm. When German citizens started to revolt, the Austrian Monarchy asked Spain to assist in putting down the attacks. Spain needed to cross France territory to reach Austria, but France persisted in blocking their path. As a result, the constrictions augmented, until a war for power broke out between the rebelling countries, and the House of Habsburg struggling to keep control. All in all, as much as the thirty year war was for religious rights, it is primarily centered on the political uneasiness between revolutions of opposing countries and remaining in dominance for the House of Habsburg.