Mill states that humans have a popular goal of happiness that is achieved through internal as well as external actions. On the other hand, Meng-tzu declares that human beings are born with four basic virtues. However, if that were the truth of mankind’s principles, wars would be inexistent. Peace would cross from one corner of the world to the other because people could share compassion with each other. Everybody would have a sense of shame and sense of right and wrong from the beginning of his or her time. Thus, people could create international peace because each and every being would know what is morally correct and would learn from his or her mistake through self-shame. But wars do exist on this world, and utilitarianism defines the reason for war among human beings. Groups of people fight wars to achieve a popular goal. A goal requires obligation, known in utilitarianism jargon as internal and external sanctions. These sanctions are the forces that are outward and within a being that decides the beliefs, values, and actions of a human being. Meng-tzu philosophy cannot cover some of the life-changing actions of human beings and has too many exceptions. Thus, his philosophy needs to be more specific and open-minded and needs take international events in consideration.
The psychology of humans is not at its best, for human beings create institutions to mold or perfect the mind. If humans were born with all four basic virtues, they would not need these institutions, such as schools. Society would not need rules either because hypothetically, people follow them naturally. Institutions apply an external force among human beings. Schools enforce rules so that students could behave appropriately and properly. Thus their sense of morality can determine their greatest happiness. Human beings develop moral sense and behavior through a variety of institutions throughout their life. According to the book Lord of the Flies, human beings all have at least a sliver of savagery and primal instinct in their soul. Institutions block off this inhumane trait from their people, but once the institutions disappear, civilization crumbles. Governments exist for the enforcement of civilization among their people. Meng-tzu implies that people do need these institutions to carve their essence because their essence already contains a sense of shame, an ability to yield to others, compassion, and sense of right and wrong. But humans do have institutions, thus, mankind believes it does need institutions and rules to maintain a civilized society.
Utilitarianism is more in-depth of human behavior than Meng-tzu’s philosophy. Meng-tzu’s philosophy of four virtues is overgeneralized and needs to be much more specific about when, why, and how people apply these genetic virtues into their principles. Utilitarianism is a modern philosophy and applies to this century where international events occur and institutions are many. Thus, Mill is correct since his philosophy is appropriate and exceptional, especially in the current era of this century.